Background A group of faculty, staff and students at the
University of Washington took part in a discussion group from
2004-2006 that read and discussed papers focusing primarily on cloud
feedbacks. However, other topics, including the relationship of deep
convection to lightning, were also explored. The discussion group
was organized by
Rob Wood and
- Fall 2006
- Nov. 27 Williams et al. (2005):
Thermodynamic conditions favorable to superlative thunderstorm
updraft, mixed phase microphysics and lightning flash rate,
Atmospheric Research, Vol. 76, pp. 288-306.
- Nov. 6 Zipser et al. (2006):
WHERE ARE THE MOST INTENSE THUNDERSTORMS ON EARTH?,
BAMS, vol. 87, pp. 1057-1071.
- Possible discussion papers on land vs. ocean convection:
Williams and Renno 1993. An
Analysis of the Conditional Instability of the Tropical
Williams and Stanfill 2002. The physical
origin of the land-ocean contrast in lightning activity. Comptes
Rendus Physique (abstract only). See also
reply in Comptes
Rendus Geosciences (full text).
Williams, Chan and Boccipio 2004. Islands as miniature
continents: Another look at the land-ocean lightning contrast, JGR.
Seifert and Beheng 2005.
A two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase
clouds. Part 2: Maritime vs. continental deep convective storms.
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics.
Seifert, Khain, Pokrovsky and Beheng 2006.
A comparison of spectral bin and two-moment bulk mixed-phase cloud microphysics.
- Papers discussed/mentioned at organizational meeting:
Crucifix 2006, Does
the Last Glacial Maximum constrain climate sensitivity?. GRL.
John and Soden 2006, Does
convectively-detrained cloud ice enhance water vapor
Soden and Held 2006, An assessment of climate
feedbacks in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. J. Climate. See
Commentary on Real
Climate and comment
16 by Isaac Held in particular.
Soden et al 2005, The Radiative
Signature of Upper Tropospheric Moistening. Science.
- Winter 2006
- Fall 2005
- Nov 28 Grabowski (2006): Indirect Impact of
Atmospheric Aerosols in Idealized Simulations of Convective-Radiative
Quasi Equilibrium, J. Climate, vol. 19, pp. 4664-4682.
- Nov 14 Tsushima, Abe-Ouchi and Manabe (2005): Radiative damping
of annual variation in global mean surface temperature: comparison
between observed and simulated feedback, Climate Dynamics,
vol. 24, pp. 591-597.
Tsushima and Manabe (2001): Influence of cloud
feedback on annual variation of global mean surface temperature,
Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 106, Issue D19, pp. 22635-22646.
- Oct 31 Bony and Dufresne (2005): Marine boundary layer
clouds at the heart of cloud feedback uncertanties in climate models,
Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 32, L20806.
- Oct 17 Two papers on uncertainties in climate prediction:
J. M. Murphy and coauthors, 2004: Quantification of
modelling uncertainties in a large ensemble of climate change
simulations, Nature, vol. 430, pp. 768-772. See also supplementary
information with details on parameter variation and their climate
prediction index (CPI).
D. A. Stainforth and coauthors, 2005: Uncertainty in
predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse
gases, Nature, vol. 433, pp. 403-406. See also supplementary
- Spring 2005
- Marat Khairoutdinov, David Randall, and Charlotte DeMott, 2005: Simulations of the
Atmospheric General Circulation Using a Cloud-Resolving Model as a
Superparameterization of Physical Processes.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences: Vol. 62, No. 7, pp. 2136-2154.
- U. Lohmann, J. Feichter, 2005: Global
indirect aerosol effects: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5,
- S.J. Ghan, L.R. Leung, R.C. Easter, H. Abdul-Razzak, 1997:
Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model.
JGR-Atmospheres 97JD01810 Vol. 102 , No. D18 , p. 21,777
- Jones, Roberts, Woodage & Johnson, 2001: Indirect sulphate
aerosol forcing in a climate model with an interactive sulphur
cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 106, Issue D17,
- Winter 2005
- Budyko, M I, 1969: The effect of solar radiation variations on the
climate of the earth. Tellus, Vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 611-619.
- Cess, R. D., 1975: Global climate change: an investigation of
atmospheric feedback mechanisms. Tellus, vol. 27, p.193.
- K. D. Williams, M. A. Ringer, C. A. Senior, 2003: Evaluating the
cloud response to climate change and current climate
variability. Climate Dynamics, Volume 20, Numbers 7-8,
pp. 705 - 721.
- R. Colman, 2003: A comparison of
climate feedbacks in general circulation models. Climate Dynamics,
Volume 20, Numbers 7-8, pp. 865-873.
- R. Colman, 2001: On the vertical extent
of atmospheric feedbacks. Climate Dynamics, Volume 17, Numbers
5-6, pp. 391-405.
- Fall 2004
- Norris, J. R., 2005: Multidecadal changes in
near-global cloud cover and estimated cloud cover radiative
forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08206, doi:10.1029/2004JD005600.
- Thomas R. Knutson and Syukuro Manabe, 1995: Time-Mean
Response over the Tropical Pacific to Increased C02 in a Coupled
Ocean-Atmosphere Model. Journal of Climate: Vol. 8, No. 9, pp. 2181-2199.
- Brian J. Soden, Anthony J. Broccoli & Richard S. Hemler, 2004: On
the Use of Cloud Forcing to Estimate Cloud Feedback. Journal of Climate: Vol. 17, No. 19, pp. 3661-3665.
- Syukuro Manabe and Richard T. Wetherald, 1967: Thermal
Equilibrium of the Atmosphere with a Given Distribution of Relative
Humidity. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences: Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 241-259.
- Alan K. Betts, W. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic
Equilibrium of the Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer over a
Tropical Ocean. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences: Vol. 46,
No. 17, pp. 2621-2641.
- Spring 2004
- Dennis L. Hartmann, Leslie A. Moy, and Qiang Fu, 2001: Tropical
Convection and the Energy Balance at the Top of the Atmosphere.
Journal of Climate: Vol. 14, No. 24, pp. 4495-4511. See also this paper on the Fixed
Anvil Temperature (FAT) hypothesis.
- Cess, R. D.; Potter, G. L.; Blanchet, J. P.; Boer, G. J.; Ghan,
S. J.; Kiehl, J. T.; Le Treut, H.; Li, Z.-X.; Liang, X.-Z.; Mitchell,
J. F. B.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Randall, D. A.; Riches, M. R.; Roeckner,
E.; Schlese, U.; Slingo, A.; Taylor, K. E.; Washington, W. M.;
Wetherald, R. T.; Yagai, I., 1989: Interpretation
of Cloud-Climate Feedback as Produced by 14 Atmospheric General
Science, Volume 245, Issue 4917, pp. 513-516
See also this
updated intercomparison from 1996.
- K. D. Williams, M. A. Ringer, C. A. Senior, 2003: Evaluating the
cloud response to climate change and current climate variability.
Climate Dynamics, Volume 20, Numbers 7-8, pp. 705 - 721.
- Y. Tsushima, A. Abe-Ouchi and S. Manabe,
damping of annual variation in global mean surface temperature:
comparison between observed and simulated feedback.
Climate Dynamics, Volume 24, Number 6, pp. 591 - 597.
- W. Y. Lin and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Evaluation
of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community
Atmospheric Model Against Satellite Observations. Journal of
Climate: Vol. 17, No. 17, pp. 3302-3318.
- Three papers on the 1997/98 El Nino:
Riyu Lu, Buwen Dong, Robert D. Cess, Gerald L. Potter, 2004: The 1997/98 El Nino: A
test for climate models. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31,
Cess, Zhang, Wielicki, Young,
Zhou and Nikitenko, 2001: The
Influence of the 1998 El Niņo upon Cloud-Radiative Forcing over the
Pacific Warm Pool. Journal of Climate: Vol. 14, No. 9,
Cess RD, Zhang MG, Wang PH, et al., 2001: Cloud
structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El
Nino. Geophysical Research Letters 28 (24): 4547-4550.
- Winter 2004
- Anthony D. Del Genio, William Kovari, 2002: Climatic
Properties of Tropical Precipitating Convection under Varying
Journal of Climate: Vol. 15, No. 18, pp. 2597-2615.
- J.T. Kiehl, 1994: On
the Observed Near Cancellation between Longwave and Shortwave Cloud
Forcing in Tropical Regions.
Journal of Climate: Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 559-565.
- Bruce A. Wielicki, Takmeng Wong, Richard P. Allan, Anthony Slingo,
Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Brian J. Soden, C. T. Gordon, Alvin J. Miller,
Shi-Keng Yang, David A. Randall, Franklin Robertson, Joel Susskind,
Herbert Jacobowitz, 2002: Evidence for Large
Decadal Variability in the Tropical Mean Radiative Energy Budget.
Science, Vol 295, Issue 5556, 841-844.
- C.A. Senior and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1993: Carbon
Dioxide and Climate. The Impact of Cloud Parameterization.
Journal of Climate: Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 393-418.
- S. Bony, J.-L. Dufresne, H. Le Treut, J.-J. Morcrette and
C. Senior, 2004: On dynamic and
thermodynamic components of cloud changes.
Climate Dynamics, Volume 22, Numbers 2-3, pp. 71 - 86.
- Adrian M. Tompkins and George C. Craig, 1999: Sensitivity
of Tropical Convection to Sea Surface Temperature in the Absence of
Journal of Climate: Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 462-476.
See also this QJRMS paper
Review papers and other papers of interest
- Bony S. and coauthors, 2006: How
well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback
processes?, J. Climate, vol. 19, pp. 3445-3482.
- Graeme L. Stephens, 2005: Cloud Feedbacks in the
Climate System: A Critical Review. Journal of Climate: Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 237-273.
- Zhang M, Cloud-climate feedback: How much do we know?
Observation, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability: Selected Papers of Nanjing...
edited by Xun Zhu, Xiaofan Li, Shuntai Zhou, Yuejian Zhu, Fei-Fei Jin,
Ming Cai, Minghua Zhang, Xiaolei Zou
- Isaac M. Held and Brian J. Soden, 2000: Water vapor
feedback and global warming. Annual Review of Energy and the
Environment Vol. 25: 441-475.
- R.T. Pierrehumbert, 1995: Thermostats,
Radiator Fins, and the Local Runaway Greenhouse. Journal of the
Atmospheric Sciences: Vol. 52, No. 10, pp. 1784-1806.
- Wyant, M. C., C. S. Bretherton, J. T. Bacmeister, J. T. Kiehl,
I. M. Held, M. Zhao, S. A. Klein, B. J. Soden, 2005: A
Comparison of Low-Latitude Cloud Properties and Responses in AGCMs
Sorted into Regimes using Mid-Tropospheric Vertical Velocity.
Submitted to Climate Dynamics.
Recent papers and preprints of interest
- Paeth and Feichter, 2006:
Greenhouse-gas versus aerosol forcing and African climate response.
Climate Dynamics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 35-54.
- Bellouin, Boucher, Haywood and Reddy, 2005:
Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements.
Nature, vol. 438, pp. 1138-41.
- Andreae, Jones and Cox, 2005:
Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future.
Nature, vol. 435, pp. 1187-90.