All Publications

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Link Key: Authors' name: abstract; (pdf): PDF of the full paper; DOI: journal (pdf & html papers)

Anderson, D.M., Tardif, R., Horlick, K., Erb, M.P., Hakim, G.J., Noone, D., Perkins, W.A. and Steig, E., 2019. Additions to the Last Millennium Reanalysis Multi-Proxy Database. Data Science Journal, 18(1), p2., DOI: 10.5334/dsj-2019-002

G. J. Hakim, G. S. Mauger, K. A. Bumbaco, and J. G. Powers, 2018: Observing network design applied to Antarctic weather monitoring and forecasting. Mon. Wea. Rev. 144,  in progress. 

67. Vonich, P. T. and G. J. Hakim, 2018: Hurricane kinetic energy spectra from in situ aircraft observations. J. Atmos. Sci. 75, 2523--2532, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0270.1

66. Singh, H. K. A., G. J. Hakim, R. Tardif, J. Emile-Geay, and D. C. Noone, 2018: Insights into Atlantic multidecadal variability using the Last Millennium Reanalysis framework. Clim. Past14, 157--174, DOI: 10.5194/cp-14-157-2018 

65. Madaus, L.E. and G.J. Hakim, 2017: Constraining ensemble forecasts of discrete convective initiation with surface observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0395.1

64. Perkins, W. A. and Hakim, G. J., 2017: Reconstructing paleoclimate fields using online data assimilation with a linear inverse model. Clim. Past, 13, 421--436, DOI: 10.5194/cp-13-421-2017.

63. Steiger, N. J., E. J. Steig, S. G. Dee, G. H. Roe, and G. J. Hakim, 2017: Climate reconstruction using data assimilation of water isotope ratios from ice cores. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres, 122, 10.1002/2016JD026011.

62. Dee, S. G., N. J. Steiger, J. Emile-Geay, and G. J. Hakim, 2016: On the utility of proxy system models for estimating climate states over the common era. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 8, DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000677.

61. Madaus, L. E., and G. J. Hakim, 2016: Observable surface anomalies preceding simulated isolated convective initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 144,  2265--2284.  DOI: MWR-D-15-0332.1 .

60. Navarro, E.L. and G.J. Hakim, 2016: Idealized numerical modeling of the diurnal cycle of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci.,   73, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0349.1.

59. Dixon, K., C. F. Mass, G. J. Hakim, and R. H. Holzworth, 2016: The Impact of Lightning Data Assimilation on Deterministic and Ensemble Forecasts of Convective Events. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 33, 1801--1823; DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0188.1

58. Steiger, N. J., and G. J. Hakim, 2016: Multi-time scale data assimilation for atmosphere--ocean state estimates. Clim. Past 12,  1375-1388.  DOI: 10.5194/cp-12-1375-2016

57. Hakim, G. J., J. Emile-Geay, E. J. Steig, D. Noone, D. M. Anderson, R. Tardif, N. J. Steiger, and W. A. Perkins, 2016: The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project: Framework and first results. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121,  DOI: 10.1002/2016JD024751 (data and code)

56. Comboul, M., Emile-Geay, J., Hakim, G. J., and M. Evans, 2015: Paleoclimate sampling as a sensor placement problem. J. Climate 28,  7717--7740. (pdf)  

55. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Comparison of wave packets associated with extratropical transition and winter cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev. 143,  1782--1803. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-14-00006.1

54. Brown, B. R., and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Sensitivity of intensifying Atlantic hurricanes to vortex structure.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 141,  2538--2551. (pdf) 

53. Tardif, R., G. J. Hakim, and C. Snyder, 2015: Coupled Atmosphere--Ocean data assimilation experiments with a low-order model and CMIP5 model data. Climate Dyn. 45,  1415--1427. (pdf) 
 DOI: 10.1007/s00382-014-2390-3

52. Madaus, L. E., and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Rapid, short-term ensemble forecast adjustment through offline data assimilation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 141,  2630--2642. (pdf) 

51. Torn, R. D., J. S. Whitaker, P. Pegion, T. M. Hamill, and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Diagnosis of the source of GFS medium-range track errors in Hurricane Sandy (2012). Mon. Wea. Rev. 143,  132--152. 

50. Bumbaco. K. A., G. J. Hakim, G. S. Mauger, N. Hryniw, and E. Steig, 2014: Evaluating the Antarctic observational network with the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev. 142,  3847--3859. (pdf) 

49. Madaus, L. E., G. J. Hakim, and C. F. Mass, 2014: Utility of dense pressure observations for improving mesoscale analyses and forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev. 142,  2398--2413. (pdf)

48. Navarro, E. L., and G. J. Hakim, 2014: Storm-centered ensemble data assimilation for tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev. 142,  2309--2320. (pdf) 

47. Steiger. N. J., G. J. Hakim, E. J. Steig, D. S. Battisti, and G. H. Roe, 2014: Assimilation of time-averaged pseudoproxies for climate reconstruction. J. Climate 27,  426--441. (pdf)  DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00693.1

46. Tardif, R., G. J. Hakim, and C. Snyder, 2013: Coupled atmosphere-ocean data assimilation experiments with a low-order climate model. Climate Dyn. 43,  1631--1643. (pdf) DOI: 10.1007/s00382-013-1989-0

45. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2013: Physical mechanisms of tropopause polar vortex intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci. 70,  3359–3373.  (pdf)  DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-13-088.1

44. Mauger, G. S., K. A. Bumbaco, G. J. Hakim, and P. W. Mote, 2013: Optimal design of a climatological network: beyond practical considerations. Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. 2,  199-212. (pdf) DOI: 10.5194/gi-2-199-2013

43. Brown, B. R., and G. J. Hakim, 2013: Variability and predictability of a three-dimensional hurricane in statistical equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci. 70,  1806--1820. (pdf)  DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0112.1

42. Hakim, G. J., 2013: The variability and predictability of axisymmetric hurricanes in statistical equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci. 70,  993-1005. (pdf)  DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0188.1

41. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2012:Radiative impact on tropopause polar vortices over the Arctic. Mon. Wea. Rev. 140,  1683-1702. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00182.1

40. Pendergrass, A. G., G. J. Hakim, D. S. Battisti, and G. Roe, 2012:Coupled air--mixed-layer temperature predictability for climate reconstruction. J. Climate 25,  459-472. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI4094.1

39. Mahajan, R. B., and G. J. Hakim, 2011: Spatial growth of perturbations in a turbulent baroclinic jet. J. Atmos. Sci. 68,  2731-2741. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-038.1

38. Ancell, B. C., C. F. Mass, and G. J. Hakim, 2011: Evaluation of surface analyses and forecasts with a multi-scale ensemble Kalman filter in regions of complex terrain. Mon. Wea. Rev. 139,  2008-2024. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2010MWR3612.1

37. Hakim, G. J., 2011: The mean state of axisymmetric hurricanes in statistical equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci. 68,  1364--1376. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2010JAS3644.1

36. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2010:The composite structure of tropopause polar cyclones from a mesoscale model . Mon. Wea. Rev. 138,  3840--3857. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2010MWR3371.1

35. Huntley, H. S., and G. J. Hakim, 2010: Assimilation of time-averaged observations in a quasi-geostrophic atmospheric jet model. Climate Dyn. 35, 995--1009. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-009-0714-5

34. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2009: Initial condition sensitivity of western-Pacific extratropical transitions determined using ensemble-based sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 137, 3388--3406. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2009MWR2879.1

33. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2009: Potential vorticity diagnosis of a tropopause polar cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev. 137,  1358--1371. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2670.1

32. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2009: Ensemble Data Assimilation applied to RAINEX observations of Hurricane Katrina (2005). Mon. Wea. Rev. 137,  2817--2829. (pdf)  DOI: 10.1175/2009MWR2656.1

31. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2008: Performance characteristics of a pseudo-operational ensemble Kalman filter. Mon. Wea. Rev. 136,  3947--3963. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2443.1

30. Hakim, G. J., 2008: A probabilistic theory for balance dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci. 65,  2949--2960. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2007JAS2499.1

29. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2008: Ensemble-based sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 136,  663--677. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2007MWR2132.1

28. Hakim, G. J., and R. D. Torn, 2008: Ensemble Synoptic Analysis. Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology and Weather Analysis and Forecasting: A Tribute to Fred Sanders,  American Meteorological Society, 440 pp.(pdf)

27. Ancell, B., and G. J. Hakim, 2007: Interpreting adjoint and ensemble sensitivity toward the development of optimal observation targeting strategies. Met. Zeitschrift 16,  635--642. (pdf) DOI:10.1127/0941-2948%2F2007%2F0250

26. Ancell, B., and G. J. Hakim, 2007: Comparing adjoint and ensemble sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 135,  4117--4134. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2007MWR1904.1

25. Chen, C.-C., G. J. Hakim, and D. R. Durran, 2007: Transient mountain waves and their interaction with large scales. J. Atmos. Sci 64, 2378-2400. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3972.1

24. Dirren, S., R. D. Torn, and G. J. Hakim, 2007: A data assimilation case-study using a limited-area ensemble Kalman filter. Mon. Wea. Rev. 135, 1455--1473. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR3358.1

23. Torn, R. D., G. J. Hakim, and C. Snyder, 2006: Boundary conditions for limited-area ensemble Kalman filters. Mon. Wea. Rev. 134,  2490--2502. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR3187.1

22. Chen, C.-C., D. R. Durran, and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Mountain wave momentum flux in an evolving synoptic-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci 62,  3213--3231. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3543.1

21. Snyder, C., and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Cyclogenetic perturbations and analysis errors decomposed into singular vectors J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2234--2247. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3458.1

20. Stevens, M. R., and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Perturbation growth in baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci. 62,  2847--2863. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3502.1

19. Patoux, J., G. J. Hakim, and R. A. Brown, 2005: Diagnosis of frontal instabilities over the Southern Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev. 133,  863--875. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MRW2883.1

18. Hakim, G. J., 2005: Vertical structure of midlatitude analysis and forecast errors. Mon. Wea. Rev. 133,  567--578. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR-2882.1

17. Dirren, S., and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Toward the assimilation of time-averaged observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L04804. (pdf) DOI: 10.1029/2004GL021444

16. Hakim, G. J., and A. Canavan, 2005: Observed cyclone--anticyclone tropopause vortex asymmetries. J. Atmos. Sci. 62,  231--240. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS-3353.1

15. Hacker, J., J. Hansen, J. Burner, Y. Chen, G. Eshel, G. Hakim, S. Lazarus, S. Majumdar, R. Morss, A. Poje, V. Sheremet, Y. Tang, and C. Webb, 2005: UCAR/NCAR Junior Faculty Forum on future scientific directions: Predictability. Bulletin AMS 86, 1733--1737.DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-86-12-1733

14. Hakim, G. J., 2003: Developing wave packets in the North Pacific storm track. Mon. Wea. Rev. 131,  2824--2837.  (pdf)  DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2824:DWPITN>2.0.CO;2

13.
Hakim, G. J., 2003: Cyclogenesis. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. Holton, J. Curry, and J. Pyle, Eds., Academic Press, 589--594.

12. Hakim, G. J., C. Snyder, and D. J. Muraki, 2002: A new surface model for cyclone--anticyclone asymmetry. J. Atmos. Sci. 59,  2405--2420.  (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2405:ANSMFC>2.0.CO;2

11. Hakim, G. J., and D. Keyser, 2001: Canonical frontal circulation patterns in terms of Green's functions for the Sawyer--Eliassen equation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc 127,  1795--1814.  (pdf) DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712757517

10. Muraki, D. J., and G. J. Hakim, 2001:  Balanced asymmetries of waves on the tropopause. J.Atmos. Sci. 58,  237--252. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0237:BAOWOT>2.0.CO;2

9. Hakim, G. J., 2000:  Role of nonmodal growth and nonlinearity in cyclogenesis initial-value problems. J. Atmos. Sci. 57,  2951--2967. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2951:RONGAN>2.0.CO;2

8. Hakim, G. J., 2000: Climatology of coherent structures on the extratropical tropopause. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, in 385--406. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0385:COCSOT>2.0.CO;2

7. Dickinson, M. L., L. F. Bosart, W. E. Bracken, G. J. Hakim, D. M. Schultz, M. A. Bedrick, and K. R. Tyle, 1997: The March 1993 Superstorm cyclogenesis: Incipient phase synoptic- and convective-scale flow interaction and model performance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 3041--3072. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<3041:TMSCIP>2.0.CO;2

6. Schultz, D. M., W. E. Bracken, L. F. Bosart, G. J. Hakim, M. A. Bedrick, M. J. Dickinson, and K. R. Tyle, 1997: The 1993 Superstorm cold surge: Frontal structure, gap flow, and tropical impact. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 5-39. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<0005:TSCSFS>2.0.CO;2

5. Hakim, G. J., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 1996: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25-26 January 1978. Part II: Diagnosis Using Quasigeostrophic Potential Vorticity Inversion.  Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2176--2205. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2176:TOVWMC>2.0.CO;2

4. Bosart, L. F., G. J. Hakim, K. R. Tyle, M. A. Bedrick, W. E. Bracken, M. J. Dickinson, and D. M. Schultz, 1996: Large-scale antecedent conditions associated with the 12-14 March 1993 cyclone (``Superstorm '93'') over eastern North America.  Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1865--1891. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<1865:LSACAW>2.0.CO;2

3. Hakim, G. J., L. F. Bosart, and D. Keyser, 1995: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25-26 January 1978. Part I: Multiscale case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2663-2692. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<2663:TOVWMC>2.0.CO;2

2. Hakim, G. J., and L. W. Uccellini, 1992: Diagnosing coupled jet-streak circulations for a Northern Plains snow band from the operational nested-grid model. Wea. Forecasting,  7, 26-48. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0434(1992)007<0026:DCJSCF>2.0.CO;2

1. Hakim, G. J., 1992: The eastern United States side-door cold front of 22 April 1987: A case study of an intense atmospheric density current. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2738-2762. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<2738:TEUSSD>2.0.CO;2


Other Publications


James R. Holton and Gregory J. Hakim, 2013: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition. Academic Press. 532pp.

Hakim, G. J., 2001: Review of An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, by David G. Andrews.  Eos, 82, p. 502.

Hakim, G. J., 2000: Review of Atmospheric Dynamics, by John Green.  Eos, 81, p. 129.

Hakim, G. J., 1999: Cyclogenesis by tropopause coherent structures. Preprints Eighth Conference on Mesoscale Processes, Boulder, Colorado, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 200--202.

Hakim, G. J., and D. J. Muraki, 1999: Tropopause dynamics beyond quasigeostrophy. Preprints Twelfth Conference on Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, New York, New York, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 50--52.

Hakim, G. J., and D. Keyser, 1997: Tropopause-based precursors to extratropical cyclogenesis: Coherent structures or Rossby waves?  Preprints Eleventh Conference on Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, Tacoma, Washington, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J15--J19.

Hakim, G. J., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 1996: Diagnosis of tropopause-based coherent structures. Preprints Seventh Conference on Mesoscale Processes, Reading, United Kingdom, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 17--20.

Hakim, G. J., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 1994: Diagnosis of wave--merger cyclogenesis through quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity inversion.  Preprints International Symposium on the Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones, Vol. II, S. Gr{\o}n{\aa}s and M. A. Shapiro, Eds., Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Norway, 221--226.

Bishop, C., D. Keyser, and G. J. Hakim, 1994: Vorticity constraints at horizontal boundaries and their implications for pv thinking. Preprints International Symposium on the Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones, Vol. II, S. Gr{\o}n{\aa}s and M. A. Shapiro, Eds., Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Norway, 127.

Hakim, G. J., and L. W. Uccellini, 1991: Diagnosing coupled jet streak circulations for a northern plains snow band from the operational nested-grid model. Preprints First International Symposium on Winter Storms,  New Orleans, La., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90--96.

Hakim, G. J. 1991: An investigation of possible consequences of recurving Western Pacific typhoons on the general circulation. (pdf)

Scott, J. T., and collaborators, 1989: Crustal expansion and contraction in response to climatic change as a mechanism for driving the earth’s tectonic plates. Published online here.


publications