My Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and ORCID pages


Refereed journal articles:

Zhu, F., J. Emile-Geay, K. J. Anchukaitis, G. J. Hakim, A. T. Wittenberg, M. S. Morales, and J. King, 2021: Volcanoes and ENSO: A re-appraisal with the Last Millennium Reanalysis. Nature Geoscience, 14, submitted.

Parsons, L. A., Amrhein, D. E., Sanchez, S. C., Tardif, R., Brennan, M. K., and Hakim, G. J., 2020: Do multi-model ensembles improve reconstruction skill in paleoclimate data assimilation? Earth Space Sci. 7, submitted.  

King, J. M., K. J. Anchukaitis, J. E. Tierney, G. J. Hakim, J. Emile-Geay, F. Zhu, and R. Wilson, 2020: A data assimilation approach to last millennium temperature field reconstruction using a limited high-sensitivity proxy network. J. Climate, 33, submitted.

Perkins, W. A., and G. J. Hakim, 2020: Coupled atmosphere--ocean reconstruction of the last millennium using online data assimilation. Paleoceanogr. Paleoclimatol., 35, submitted.  

Amrhein, D. E., G. J. Hakim, and L. A. Parsons, 2020: How much of the uncertainty in paleoclimate reconstructions is due to uncertain climate physics? Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, in press.  

82. Sanchez, S. C., G. J. Hakim, and C. P. Saenger, 2021: Climate model teleconnection patterns govern the tropical Pacific response to early 19th century volcanism in coral-based data assimilation reconstructions. J. Climate, 34, 1863--1880. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0549.1 (NOAA press release) 

81. Briner, J. P., J. K. Cuzzone, J. A. Badgeley, N. E. Young, E. J. Steig, M. Morlighem, N.-J. Schlegel, G. J. Hakim, J. Schaefer, J. V. Johnson, A. J. Lesnek, E. K. Thomas, E. Allan, O. Bennike, A. A. Cluett, B. Csatho, A. de Vernal, J. Downs, E. Larour, S. Nowicki, 2020: Rate of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will exceed Holocene values this century. Nature, 586, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2742-6 (read-only access) (Nature News & Views; Nature podcast; The Guardian; Washington Post; National Geographic; press release).  

80. Badgeley, J. A., E. J. Steig, G. J. Hakim, and T. J. Fudge, 2020: Greenland temperature and precipitation over the last 20,000 years using data assimilation. Clim. Past, 16, 1325--1346, DOI: 10.5194/cp-16-1325-2020  

79. Tierney, J. E., J. Zhu, J. King, S. B. Malevich, G. J. Hakim, C. J. Poulsen, 2020: Glacial cooling and climate sensitivity revisited. Nature, 584, 569--573, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2617-x (read-only access) (press release) 

78. Erb, M. P., J. Emile-Geay, G. J. Hakim, N. Steiger, E. J. Steig, 2020: Atmospheric dynamics drive most interannual U.S. droughts over the last millennium. Science Advances, 6, eaay7268, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay7268 (press release) 

77. Zhu, F., J. Emile-Geay, G. J. Hakim, J. King, K. J. Anchukaitis, 2020: Resolving the differences in the simulated and reconstructed climate response to volcanism over the last millennium. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL086908, DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086908  

76. Brennan, M. K., G. J. Hakim, and E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, 2020: Arctic sea ice variability during the Instrumental Era. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL086843. DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086843  

75. Perkins, W. A., and G. J. Hakim, 2020: Linear inverse modeling for coupled atmosphere-ocean ensemble climate prediction. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 12, e2019MS001778, DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001778 

74. Hakim, G. J. , K. A. Bumbaco, R. Tardif, and J. G. Powers, 2020: Optimal network design applied to monitoring and forecasting surface temperature in Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev. 148,  857-873: 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0103.1 

73. Parsons, L. A., and G. J. Hakim, 2019: Local regions associated with interdecadal global temperature variability in the Last Millennium Reanalysis and CMIP5 models.J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 124, 9905-9917,  DOI: 10.1029/2019JD030426 

72. Neukom, R., et al., 2019: Consistent multidecadal variability in global temperature reconstructions and simulations over the Common Era. Nature Geoscience, 12, 643-649, DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0400-0 (press)

71. Tardif, R., Hakim, G. J., Perkins, W. A., Horlick, K. A., Erb, M. P., Emile-Geay, J., Anderson, D. M., Steig, E. J., and Noone, D., 2019: Last Millennium Reanalysis with an expanded proxy database and seasonal proxy modeling, Clim. Past, 15, 1251-1273, DOI: 10.5194/cp-15-1251-2019

70. Zhu, F., J. Emile-Geay, N. P. McKay, G. J. Hakim, D. Khider, T. R. Ault, E. J. Steig, S. Dee, and J. W. Kirchner, 2019: Climate models can correctly simulate the continuum of global-average temperature variability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 8728-8733, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1809959116

69. Anderson, D.M., Tardif, R., Horlick, K., Erb, M.P., Hakim, G.J., Noone, D., Perkins, W.A. and Steig, E., 2019. Additions to the Last Millennium Reanalysis multi-proxy database. Data Science Journal, 18(1), p2., DOI: 10.5334/dsj-2019-002

68. Vonich, P. T. and G. J. Hakim, 2018: Hurricane kinetic energy spectra from in situ aircraft observations. J. Atmos. Sci. 75, 2523--2532, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0270.1

67. Singh, H. K. A., G. J. Hakim, R. Tardif, J. Emile-Geay, and D. C. Noone, 2018: Insights into Atlantic multidecadal variability using the Last Millennium Reanalysis framework. Clim. Past14, 157--174, DOI: 10.5194/cp-14-157-2018 

66. Navarro, E. L., G. J. Hakim, and H. E. Willoughby, 2017: Balanced response of an axisymmetric tropical cyclone to periodic diurnal heating. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 3325--3337, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0279.1

65. Madaus, L.E. and G.J. Hakim, 2017: Constraining ensemble forecasts of discrete convective initiation with surface observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0395.1

64. Perkins, W. A. and Hakim, G. J., 2017: Reconstructing paleoclimate fields using online data assimilation with a linear inverse model. Clim. Past, 13, 421--436, DOI: 10.5194/cp-13-421-2017.

63. Steiger, N. J., E. J. Steig, S. G. Dee, G. H. Roe, and G. J. Hakim, 2017: Climate reconstruction using data assimilation of water isotope ratios from ice cores. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres, 122, 10.1002/2016JD026011.

62. Dee, S. G., N. J. Steiger, J. Emile-Geay, and G. J. Hakim, 2016: On the utility of proxy system models for estimating climate states over the common era. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 8, DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000677.

61. Madaus, L. E., and G. J. Hakim, 2016: Observable surface anomalies preceding simulated isolated convective initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 144,  2265--2284.  DOI: MWR-D-15-0332.1 .

60. Navarro, E.L. and G.J. Hakim, 2016: Idealized numerical modeling of the diurnal cycle of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci.,   73, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0349.1.

59. Dixon, K., C. F. Mass, G. J. Hakim, and R. H. Holzworth, 2016: The impact of lightning data assimilation on deterministic and ensemble forecasts of convective events. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 33, 1801--1823; DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0188.1

58. Steiger, N. J., and G. J. Hakim, 2016: Multi-time scale data assimilation for atmosphere--ocean state estimates. Clim. Past 12,  1375-1388.  DOI: 10.5194/cp-12-1375-2016

57. Hakim, G. J., J. Emile-Geay, E. J. Steig, D. Noone, D. M. Anderson, R. Tardif, N. J. Steiger, and W. A. Perkins, 2016: The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project: Framework and first results. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 6745--6764, DOI: 10.1002/2016JD024751 (data and code)

56. Comboul, M., Emile-Geay, J., Hakim, G. J., and M. Evans, 2015: Paleoclimate sampling as a sensor placement problem. J. Climate 28, 7717--7740,  DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00802.1

55. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Comparison of wave packets associated with extratropical transition and winter cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev. 143,  1782--1803. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-14-00006.1

54. Brown, B. R., and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Sensitivity of intensifying Atlantic hurricanes to vortex structure.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 141,  2538--2551, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2540

53. Tardif, R., G. J. Hakim, and C. Snyder, 2015: Coupled Atmosphere--Ocean data assimilation experiments with a low-order model and CMIP5 model data. Climate Dyn. 45,  1415--1427. (pdf) ;DOI: 10.1007/s00382-014-2390-3

52. Madaus, L. E., and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Rapid, short-term ensemble forecast adjustment through offline data assimilation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 141,  2630--2642,  DOI: 10.1002/qj.2549

51. Torn, R. D., J. S. Whitaker, P. Pegion, T. M. Hamill, and G. J. Hakim, 2015: Diagnosis of the source of GFS medium-range track errors in Hurricane Sandy (2012). Mon. Wea. Rev. 143,  132--152, DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-14-00086.1

50. Bumbaco. K. A., G. J. Hakim, G. S. Mauger, N. Hryniw, and E. Steig, 2014: Evaluating the Antarctic observational network with the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev. 142,  3847--3859, DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00401.1

49. Madaus, L. E., G. J. Hakim, and C. F. Mass, 2014: Utility of dense pressure observations for improving mesoscale analyses and forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev. 142,  2398--2413, DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00269.1

48. Navarro, E. L., and G. J. Hakim, 2014: Storm-centered ensemble data assimilation for tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev. 142,  2309--2320, DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00099.1

47. Steiger. N. J., G. J. Hakim, E. J. Steig, D. S. Battisti, and G. H. Roe, 2014: Assimilation of time-averaged pseudoproxies for climate reconstruction. J. Climate 27,  426--441. (pdf)  DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00693.1

46. Tardif, R., G. J. Hakim, and C. Snyder, 2013: Coupled atmosphere-ocean data assimilation experiments with a low-order climate model. Climate Dyn. 43,  1631--1643. (pdf) DOI: 10.1007/s00382-013-1989-0

45. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2013: Physical mechanisms of tropopause polar vortex intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci. 70,  3359–3373.  (pdf)  DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-13-088.1

44. Mauger, G. S., K. A. Bumbaco, G. J. Hakim, and P. W. Mote, 2013: Optimal design of a climatological network: beyond practical considerations. Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. 2,  199-212. (pdf) DOI: 10.5194/gi-2-199-2013

43. Brown, B. R., and G. J. Hakim, 2013: Variability and predictability of a three-dimensional hurricane in statistical equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci. 70,  1806--1820. (pdf)  DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0112.1

42. Hakim, G. J., 2013: The variability and predictability of axisymmetric hurricanes in statistical equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci. 70,  993-1005. (pdf)  DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0188.1

41. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2012:Radiative impact on tropopause polar vortices over the Arctic. Mon. Wea. Rev. 140,  1683-1702. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00182.1

40. Pendergrass, A. G., G. J. Hakim, D. S. Battisti, and G. Roe, 2012:Coupled air--mixed-layer temperature predictability for climate reconstruction. J. Climate 25,  459-472. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI4094.1

39. Mahajan, R. B., and G. J. Hakim, 2011: Spatial growth of perturbations in a turbulent baroclinic jet. J. Atmos. Sci. 68,  2731-2741. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-038.1

38. Ancell, B. C., C. F. Mass, and G. J. Hakim, 2011: Evaluation of surface analyses and forecasts with a multi-scale ensemble Kalman filter in regions of complex terrain. Mon. Wea. Rev. 139,  2008-2024. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2010MWR3612.1

37. Hakim, G. J., 2011: The mean state of axisymmetric hurricanes in statistical equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci. 68,  1364--1376. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2010JAS3644.1

36. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2010:The composite structure of tropopause polar cyclones from a mesoscale model . Mon. Wea. Rev. 138,  3840--3857. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2010MWR3371.1

35. Huntley, H. S., and G. J. Hakim, 2010: Assimilation of time-averaged observations in a quasi-geostrophic atmospheric jet model. Climate Dyn. 35, 995--1009. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-009-0714-5

34. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2009: Initial condition sensitivity of western-Pacific extratropical transitions determined using ensemble-based sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 137, 3388--3406. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2009MWR2879.1

33. Cavallo, S. M., and G. J. Hakim, 2009: Potential vorticity diagnosis of a tropopause polar cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev. 137,  1358--1371. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2670.1

32. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2009: Ensemble Data Assimilation applied to RAINEX observations of Hurricane Katrina (2005). Mon. Wea. Rev. 137,  2817--2829. (pdf)  DOI: 10.1175/2009MWR2656.1

31. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2008: Performance characteristics of a pseudo-operational ensemble Kalman filter. Mon. Wea. Rev. 136,  3947--3963. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2443.1

30. Hakim, G. J., 2008: A probabilistic theory for balance dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci. 65,  2949--2960. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2007JAS2499.1

29. Torn, R. D., and G. J. Hakim, 2008: Ensemble-based sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 136,  663--677. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2007MWR2132.1

28. Hakim, G. J., and R. D. Torn, 2008: Ensemble Synoptic Analysis. Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology and Weather Analysis and Forecasting: A Tribute to Fred Sanders,  American Meteorological Society, 440 pp.(pdf)

27. Ancell, B., and G. J. Hakim, 2007: Interpreting adjoint and ensemble sensitivity toward the development of optimal observation targeting strategies. Met. Zeitschrift 16,  635--642. (pdf) DOI:10.1127/0941-2948%2F2007%2F0250

26. Ancell, B., and G. J. Hakim, 2007: Comparing adjoint and ensemble sensitivity analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 135,  4117--4134. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/2007MWR1904.1

25. Chen, C.-C., G. J. Hakim, and D. R. Durran, 2007: Transient mountain waves and their interaction with large scales. J. Atmos. Sci 64, 2378-2400. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3972.1

24. Dirren, S., R. D. Torn, and G. J. Hakim, 2007: A data assimilation case-study using a limited-area ensemble Kalman filter. Mon. Wea. Rev. 135, 1455--1473. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR3358.1

23. Torn, R. D., G. J. Hakim, and C. Snyder, 2006: Boundary conditions for limited-area ensemble Kalman filters. Mon. Wea. Rev. 134,  2490--2502. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR3187.1

22. Chen, C.-C., D. R. Durran, and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Mountain wave momentum flux in an evolving synoptic-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci 62,  3213--3231. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3543.1

21. Snyder, C., and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Cyclogenetic perturbations and analysis errors decomposed into singular vectors J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2234--2247. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3458.1

20. Stevens, M. R., and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Perturbation growth in baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci. 62,  2847--2863. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS3502.1

19. Patoux, J., G. J. Hakim, and R. A. Brown, 2005: Diagnosis of frontal instabilities over the Southern Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev. 133,  863--875. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MRW2883.1

18. Hakim, G. J., 2005: Vertical structure of midlatitude analysis and forecast errors. Mon. Wea. Rev. 133,  567--578. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/MWR-2882.1

17. Dirren, S., and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Toward the assimilation of time-averaged observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L04804. (pdf) DOI: 10.1029/2004GL021444

16. Hakim, G. J., and A. Canavan, 2005: Observed cyclone--anticyclone tropopause vortex asymmetries. J. Atmos. Sci. 62,  231--240. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/JAS-3353.1

15. Hacker, J., J. Hansen, J. Burner, Y. Chen, G. Eshel, G. Hakim, S. Lazarus, S. Majumdar, R. Morss, A. Poje, V. Sheremet, Y. Tang, and C. Webb, 2005: UCAR/NCAR Junior Faculty Forum on future scientific directions: Predictability. Bulletin AMS 86, 1733--1737.DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-86-12-1733

14. Hakim, G. J., 2003: Developing wave packets in the North Pacific storm track. Mon. Wea. Rev. 131,  2824--2837.  (pdf)  DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2824:DWPITN>2.0.CO;2

13. Hakim, G. J., 2003: Cyclogenesis. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. Holton, J. Curry, and J. Pyle, Eds., Academic Press, 589--594.

12. Hakim, G. J., C. Snyder, and D. J. Muraki, 2002: A new surface model for cyclone--anticyclone asymmetry. J. Atmos. Sci. 59,  2405--2420.  (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2405:ANSMFC>2.0.CO;2

11. Hakim, G. J., and D. Keyser, 2001: Canonical frontal circulation patterns in terms of Green's functions for the Sawyer--Eliassen equation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc 127,  1795--1814.  (pdf) DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712757517

10. Muraki, D. J., and G. J. Hakim, 2001:  Balanced asymmetries of waves on the tropopause. J.Atmos. Sci. 58,  237--252. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0237:BAOWOT>2.0.CO;2

9. Hakim, G. J., 2000:  Role of nonmodal growth and nonlinearity in cyclogenesis initial-value problems. J. Atmos. Sci. 57,  2951--2967. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2951:RONGAN>2.0.CO;2

8. Hakim, G. J., 2000: Climatology of coherent structures on the extratropical tropopause. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, in 385--406. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0385:COCSOT>2.0.CO;2

7. Dickinson, M. L., L. F. Bosart, W. E. Bracken, G. J. Hakim, D. M. Schultz, M. A. Bedrick, and K. R. Tyle, 1997: The March 1993 Superstorm cyclogenesis: Incipient phase synoptic- and convective-scale flow interaction and model performance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 3041--3072. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<3041:TMSCIP>2.0.CO;2

6. Schultz, D. M., W. E. Bracken, L. F. Bosart, G. J. Hakim, M. A. Bedrick, M. J. Dickinson, and K. R. Tyle, 1997: The 1993 Superstorm cold surge: Frontal structure, gap flow, and tropical impact. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 5-39. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<0005:TSCSFS>2.0.CO;2

5. Hakim, G. J., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 1996: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25-26 January 1978. Part II: Diagnosis Using Quasigeostrophic Potential Vorticity Inversion.  Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2176--2205. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2176:TOVWMC>2.0.CO;2

4. Bosart, L. F., G. J. Hakim, K. R. Tyle, M. A. Bedrick, W. E. Bracken, M. J. Dickinson, and D. M. Schultz, 1996: Large-scale antecedent conditions associated with the 12-14 March 1993 cyclone (``Superstorm '93'') over eastern North America.  Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1865--1891. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<1865:LSACAW>2.0.CO;2

3. Hakim, G. J., L. F. Bosart, and D. Keyser, 1995: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25-26 January 1978. Part I: Multiscale case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2663-2692. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<2663:TOVWMC>2.0.CO;2

2. Hakim, G. J., and L. W. Uccellini, 1992: Diagnosing coupled jet-streak circulations for a Northern Plains snow band from the operational nested-grid model. Wea. Forecasting,  7, 26-48. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0434(1992)007<0026:DCJSCF>2.0.CO;2

1. Hakim, G. J., 1992: The eastern United States side-door cold front of 22 April 1987: A case study of an intense atmospheric density current. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2738-2762. (pdf) DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<2738:TEUSSD>2.0.CO;2

Other Publications

Gregory J. Hakim and Jerome Patoux, 2018: Weather: A Concise Introduction, Cambridge University Press. 350pp.

James R. Holton and Gregory J. Hakim, 2013: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition. Academic Press. 532pp.

Hakim, G. J., 2001: Review of An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, by David G. Andrews.  Eos, 82, p. 502.

Hakim, G. J., 2000: Review of Atmospheric Dynamics, by John Green.  Eos, 81, p. 129.

Hakim, G. J. 1991: An investigation of possible consequences of recurving Western Pacific typhoons on the general circulation. (pdf)

Scott, J. T., and collaborators, 1989: Crustal expansion and contraction in response to climatic change as a mechanism for driving the earth’s tectonic plates. Published online here.