WINTER 2015

Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER)


The WINTER campaign took place February – March 2015, led by UW PI’s Thornton and Jaegle, together with Co-PI’s from NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory, UC Berkley, Georgia Institute of Technology, University of Colorado, and the University of New Hampshire, as well as significant contributions from National Center for Atmospheric Research, NOAA’s Air Resources Laboratory, and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center.

The campaign was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF AGS 1360745), and utilized the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. The campaign focused on wintertime emissions and chemical processes in the Northeastern US, with three goals:

(1) to characterize the chemical transformations of wintertime emissions with an equal focus on nocturnal and multiphase processes as on photochemistry;

 

(2) to assess the dominant mechanism of secondary aerosol formation and quantify the geographical distribution of inorganic and organic aerosol types during winter;

 

(3) to provide constraints on wintertime emission inventories for urban areas, power plants and agricultural areas, and characterize the export pathways of primary pollutants to the North Atlantic.

NSF/NCAR C130
NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft during WINTER campaign at NASA Langley Research Center

The NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft was based at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA to address these goals, and outfitted with over 15 instruments, including two of the Thornton group’s HR-ToF-CIMS, to measure reactive nitrogen species (NOx, N2O5, HNO3, Peroxy Nitrates, etc), SO2, NH3, VOCs, aerosol size and composition, inorganic acids, and reactive halogens (ClNO2, Cl2, Br2, BrCl, etc).

These measurements were made in and downwind of large urban and industrial areas, coal-fired power plants and distributed emissions from oil and gas extraction, and agricultural or biofuel burning. Approximately 50% of flight hours were conducted at night, and the vast majority were flown within 1 km of the Earth’s surface to survey the polluted boundary layer.
 
 
 
 

WINTER Campaign Publications

There is a special collection of articles in the Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres related to WINTER campaign findings, those and a selection of other papers based on or using WINTER campaign data are listed below.

Shah, V., Jaegle, L., Jimenez, J. L., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Campos, T. L., Reeves, J. M., Stell, M., Brown, S. S., Lee, B. H., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., & Thornton, J. A. (2019). Widespread Pollution From Secondary Sources of Organic Aerosols During Winter in the Northeastern United States. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 46(5), 2974–2983. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081530

Haskins, J. D., Lee, B. H., Lopez-Hilifiker, F. D., Peng, Q., Jaegle, L., Reeves, J. M., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Fibiger, D., McDuffie, E. E., Jimenez, J. L., Brown, S. S., & Thornton, J. A. (2019). Observational Constraints on the Formation of Cl-2 From the Reactive Uptake of ClNO2 on Aerosols in the Polluted Marine Boundary Layer. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 124(15), 8851–8869. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD030627

Green, J. R., Fiddler, M. N., Holloway, J. S., Fibiger, D. L., McDuffie, E. E., Campuzano-Jost, P., Schroder, J. C., Jimenez, J. L., Weinheimer, A. J., Aquino, J., Montzka, D. D., Hall, S. R., Ullmann, K., Shah, V., Jaegle, L., Thornton, J. A., Bililign, S., & Brown, S. S. (2019). Rates of Wintertime Atmospheric SO2 Oxidation based on Aircraft Observations during Clear-Sky Conditions over the Eastern United States. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 124(12), 6630–6649. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD030086

Haskins, J. D., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Thornton, J. A., Jaegle, L., Shah, V., Lee, B. H., Campuzano-Jost, P., Schroder, J. C., Day, D. A., Guo, H., Sullivan, A. P., Weber, R., Dibb, J., Campos, T., Jimenez, J. L., & Brown, S. S. (2019). Anthropogenic Control On Wintertime Oxidation of atmospheric pollutants. Geophysical Research Letters, submitted.

Wang, X., Jacob, D. J., Eastham, S. D., Sulprizio, M. P., Zhu, L., Chen, Q., Alexander, B., Sherwen, T., Evans, M. J., Lee, B. H., Haskins, J. D., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Thornton, J. A., Huey, G. L., & Liao, H. (2019). The role of chlorine in global tropospheric chemistry. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 19(6), 3981–4003. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3981-2019

Shah, V., Jaegle, L., Thornton, J. A., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Lee, B. H., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Jimenez, J. L., Guo, H., Sullivan, A. P., Weber, R. J., Green, J. R., Fiddler, M. N., Bililign, S., Campos, T. L., Stell, M., Weinheimer, A. J., Montzka, D. D., & Brown, S. S. (2018). Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern United States. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115(32), 8110–8115. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803295115

McDuffie, E. E., Fibiger, D. L., Dube, W. P., Lopez-Hilfiker, F., Lee, B. H., Thornton, J. A., Shah, V., Jaegle, L., Guo, H., Weber, R. J., Reeves, J. M., Weinheimer, A. J., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Jimenez, J. L., Dibb, J. E., Veres, P., Ebben, C., Sparks, T. L., Wooldridge, P. J., Cohen, R. C., Hornbrook, R. S., Apel, E. C., Campos, T., Hall, S. R., Ullmann, K., Brown, S. S., McDuffie E., E., Fibiger Dorothy, L., Dubé William, P., Lopez‐Hilfiker, F., Lee Ben, H., Thornton Joel, A., Shah, V., Jaeglé, L., Guo, H., Weber Rodney, J., Michael Reeves, J., Weinheimer Andrew, J., Schroder Jason, C., Campuzano‐Jost, P., Jimenez Jose, L., Dibb Jack, E., Veres, P., Ebben, C., Sparks Tamara, L., Wooldridge Paul, J., Cohen Ronald, C., Hornbrook Rebecca, S., Apel Eric, C., Campos, T., Hall Samuel, R., Ullmann, K., & Brown Steven, S. (2018). Heterogeneous N2O5 Uptake During Winter: Aircraft Measurements During the 2015 WINTER Campaign and Critical Evaluation of Current Parameterizations. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(8), 4345–4372. https://doi.org/10.1002/2018JD028336

Haskins, J. D., Jaegle, L., Shah, V., Lee, B. H., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Campuzano-Jost, P., Schroder, J. C., Day, D. A., Guo, H., Sullivan, A. P., Weber, R., Dibb, J., Campos, T., Jimenez, J. L., Brown, S. S., & Thornton, J. A. (2018). Wintertime Gas-Particle Partitioning and Speciation of Inorganic Chlorine in the Lower Troposphere Over the Northeast United States and Coastal Ocean. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(22), 12897–12916. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028786

McDuffie, E. E., Fibiger, D. L., Dube, W. P., Hilfiker, F. L., Lee, B. H., Jaegle, L., Guo, H., Weber, R. J., Reeves, J. M., Weinheimer, A. J., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Jimenez, J. L., Dibb, J. E., Veres, P., Ebben, C., Sparks, T. L., Wooldridge, P. J., Cohen, R. C., Campos, T., Hall, S. R., Ullmann, K., Roberts, J. M., Thornton, J. A., & Brown, S. S. (2018). ClNO2 Yields From Aircraft Measurements During the 2015 WINTER Campaign and Critical Evaluation of the Current Parameterization. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(22), 12994–13015. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029358

Kenagy, H. S., Sparks, T. L., Ebben, C. J., Wooldrige, P. J., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Lee, B. H., Thornton, J. A., McDuffie, E. E., Fibiger, D. L., Brown, S. S., Montzka, D. D., Weinheimer, A. J., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Jimenez, J. L., Dibb, J. E., Campos, T., Shah, V., Jaegle, L., & Cohen, R. C. (2018). NOx Lifetime and NOy Partitioning During WINTER. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(17), 9813–9827. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028736

Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Shah, V., Larson, K., Sommers, J. M., Sullivan, A. P., Campos, T., Reeves, J. M., Hills, A., Hornbrook, R. S., Blake, N. J., Scheuer, E., Guo, H., Fibiger, D. L., McDuffie, E. E., Hayes, P. L., Weber, R. J., Dibb, J. E., Apel, E. C., Jaegle, L., Brown, S. S., Thornton, J. A., & Jimenez, J. L. (2018). Sources and Secondary Production of Organic Aerosols in the Northeastern United States during WINTER. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(14), 7771–7796. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028475

Jaegle, L., Shah, V., Thornton, J. A., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Lee, B. H., McDuffie, E. E., Fibiger, D. L., Brown, S. S., Veres, P., Sparks, T. L., Ebben, C. J., Wooldridge, P. J., Kenagy, H. S., Cohen, R. C., Weinheimer, A. J., Campos, T. L., Montzka, D. D., DiGangi, J. P., Wolfe, G. M., Hanisco, T., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Jimenez, J. L., Sullivan, A. P., Guo, H., Weber, R. J., Jaeglé, L., Shah, V., Thornton, J. A., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Lee, B. H., McDuffie, E. E., Fibiger, D. L., Brown, S. S., Veres, P., Sparks, T. L., Ebben, C. J., J., W. P., Kenagy, H. S., Cohen, R. C., Weinheimer, A. J., Campos, T. L., Montzka, D. D., DiGangi, J. P., Wolfe, G. M., Hanisco, T., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Jimenez, J. L., Sullivan, A. P., Guo, H., & Weber, R. J. (2018). Nitrogen Oxides Emissions, Chemistry, Deposition, and Export Over the Northeast United States During the WINTER Aircraft Campaign. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(21), 12368–12393. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029133

Ren, X., Salmon, O. E., Hansford, J. R., Ahn, D., Hall, D., Benish, S. E., Stratton, P. R., He, H., Sahu, S., Grimes, C., Heimburger, A. M. F., Martin, C. R., Cohen, M. D., Stunder, B., Salawitch, R. J., Ehrman, S. H., Shepson, P. B., & Dickerson, R. R. (2018). Methane Emissions From the Baltimore-Washington Area Based on Airborne Observation: Comparison to Emissions Inventories. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(16), 8869–8882. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028851

Salmon, O. E., Shepson, P. B., Ren, X., He, H., Hall, D. L., Dickerson, R. R., Stirm, B. H., Brown, S. S., Fibiger, D. L., McDuffie, E. E., Campos, T. L., Gurney, K. R., & Thornton, J. A. (2018). Top-Down Estimates of NOx and CO Emissions From Washington, DC-Baltimore During the WINTER Campaign. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(14), 7705–7724. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028539

Lee, B. H., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Veres, P. R., McDuffie, E. E., Fibiger, D. L., Sparks, T. L., Ebben, C. J., Green, J. R., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Iyer, S., D’Ambro, E. L., Schobesberger, S., Brown, S. S., Wooldridge, P. J., Cohen, R. C., Fiddler, M. N., Bililign, S., Jimenez, J. L., Kurten, T., Weinheimer, A. J., Jaegle, L., & Thornton, J. A. (2018). Flight Deployment of a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer: Observations of Reactive Halogen and Nitrogen Oxide Species. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 123(14), 7670–7686. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD028082

Sullivan, A. P., Guo, H., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Jimenez, J. L., Campos, T., Shah, V., Jaegle, L., Lee, B. H., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Thornton, J. A., Brown, S. S., & Weber, R. J. (2019). Biomass Burning Markers and Residential Burning in the WINTER Aircraft Campaign. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 124(3), 1846–1861. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD028153

Fibiger, D. L., McDuffie, E. E., Dubé, W. P., Aikin, K. C., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Lee, B. H., Green, J. R., Fiddler, M. N., Holloway, J. S., Ebben, C., Sparks, T. L., Wooldridge, P., Weinheimer, A. J., Montzka, D. D., Apel, E. C., Hornbrook, R. S., Hills, A. J., Blake, N. J., DiGangi, J. P., Wolfe, G. M., Bililign, S., Cohen, R. C., Thornton, J. A., & Brown, S. S. (2018). Wintertime Overnight NOx Removal in a Southeastern United States Coal-fired Power Plant Plume: A Model for Understanding Winter NOx Processing and its Implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(2), 1412–1425. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027768

Salmon, O. E., Shepson, P. B., Ren, X., Collow, A. B. M., Miller, M. A., Carlton, A. G., Cambaliza, M. O. L., Heimburger, A., Morgan, K. L., Fuentes, J. D., Stirm, B. H., Grundman II, R., & Dickerson, R. R. (2017). Urban emissions of water vapor in winter. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 122(17), 9467–9484. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD026074

Guo, H., Sullivan, A. P., Campuzano-Jost, P., Schroder, J. C., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Dibb, J. E., Jimenez, J. L., Thornton, J. A., Brown, S. S., Nenes, A., & Weber, R. J. (2016). Fine particle pH and the partitioning of nitric acid during winter in the northeastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121(17), 10355–10376. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025311

More information can be found at  NOAA ESRL’s webpage,  NCAR EOL’s webpage, or within the Winter 2015 campaign white paper here as a PDF.