Publications and other notes
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Web of Science search information at end of page

Submitted and in-press

pdf Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment. Wood, R., M. Wyant, C. S. Bretherton, J. Rémillard, P. Kollias, J. Fletcher, J. Stemmler, S. deSzoeke, S. E. Yuter, M. Miller, D. Mechem, G. Tselioudis, C. Chiu, J. Mann, E. O’Connor, R. Hogan, X. Dong, M. Miller, V. Ghate, A. Jefferson, Q. Min, P. Minnis, R. Palinkonda, B. Albrecht, E. Luke, C. Hannay, Y. Lin, 2014: Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., in press.
pdf Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA Intercomparison. M. C. Wyant, C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, G. R. Carmichael, A. Clarke, J. Fast, R. C. George, W. I. Gustafson Jr., C. Hannay, A. Lauer, Y. Lin J.-J. Morcrette, J. Mulcahy, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, and Q. Yang. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 14, 6537–6587, 2014.
pdf Factors determining the most efficient spray distribution for marine cloud brightening, P. J. Connolly, G. B. McFiggans, and R. Wood. Submitted to Phil. Trans., April 2014.
pdf The effect of solar zenith angle on MODIS cloud optical and microphysical retrievals, D. P. Grosvenor and R. Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc., 14, 303-375, 2014.
pdf Aircraft observations of five pockets of open cells sampled during VOCALS REx. C. R. Terai, C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, and G. Painter. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc., 14, 8287-8332, 2014.
pdf A 19-month Record of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties derived from DOE ARM AMF deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-layered MBL Cloud Properties. X. Dong, B. Xi, A. Kennedy. P. Minnis, and R. Wood. J. Clim., in press, 2014.
pdf Climatology of stratocumulus cloud morphologies: Microphysical properties and radiative effects. A. Muhlbauer, I. McCoy, and R. Wood. Submitted to Atmos. Chem. Phys, Jan 2013.
pdf Marine boundary layer cloud regimes and POC formation in an LES coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme. A. H. Berner, C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, and A. Muhlbauer, Submitted to Atmos. Chem. Phys., June 2013.

2014

pdf Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Interactions in the Southeastern Pacific: The VOCALS Program. C. R. Mechoso, R. Wood, R. Weller, C. S. Bretherton, A. D. Clarke, H. Coe , C. Fairall, J. T. Farrar, G. Feingold, R. Garreaud, C. Grados, J. C. McWilliams , S. P. de Szoeke, S. E. Yuter, and P. Zuidema. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 95, 357-37, 2014.
pdf Climate Effects of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions. Daniel Rosenfeld, Steven Sherwood, Robert Wood, Leo Donner. Science, 343, 379-380, 2014.

2013

pdf Climatic change special issue: geoengineering research and its limitations. Robert Wood, Stephen Gardiner and Lauren Hartzell-Nichols. Climatic Change, 121, 427-430, DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-1000-4
pdf Defining success and limits of field experiments to test geoengineering by marine cloud brightening
. R. Wood and T. P. Ackerman. Climatic Change, DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0932-z, 2013.
pdf
US CLIVAR Science Plan. December 2013.
pdf
The seasonal cycle of planetary boundary layer depth determined using COSMIC radio occultation data. K.-M. Chan and R. Wood. J. Geophys. Res., May 2013.
pdf Aerosol cloud-mediated radiative forcing: highly uncertain and opposite effects from shallow and deep clouds. Rosenfeld, D., R. Wood, L. Donner, S. Sherwood, 2013. A WCRP Community Position Paper
Community position papers are intended to address current and future research and intellectual challenges that must be tackled by WCRP, and in so doing engage the next generation of scientists who will lead the WCRP over the years and decades ahead.
pdf
Microphysical Process Rates and Global Aerosol-Cloud Interactions. A. Gettelman, H. Morrison, C. R. Terai, and R. Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9855-9867, 2013.
pdf Development and impact of hooks of large droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus. R. C. George, R. Wood, C. S. Bretherton and G. Painter. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6305-6328, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6305-2013, 2013.
pdf
How forecasts expressing uncertainty are perceived by UK students. J. A. Peachey, D. M. Schultz, R. Morss, P. J. Roebber, R. Wood. Weather, 67, 176-181, 2013.
pdf Aircraft observations of cold pools under marine stratocumulus. C. R. Terai and R. Wood, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc, 13, 11023-11069, 2013.
pdf Community Modeling and Long-Term Predictions of the Integrated Water Cycle. Topic Lead and Coauthor, Report from a DoE Workshop, September 2012.

pdf Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean. C. H. Twohy, J. R. Anderson, D. W. Toohey, M. Andrejczuk, A. Adams, M. Lytle, R. C. George, R. Wood, P. Saide, S. Spak, P. Zuidema, and D. Leon, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2541–2562, 2013.

2012

pdf On the nature and extent of optically-thin low clouds. L. V. Leahy, R. Wood, R. J. Charlson, C. A. Hostetler, R. R. Rogers, M. A. Vaughan, and D. M. Winker. Submitted to J. Geophys. Res, April 2012.
pdf Marine boundary layer cloud observations at the Azores. J. Rémillard, P. Kollias, E. Luke, and R. Wood. Submitted to J. Climate ., Oct 2011.
pdf Precipitation driving of droplet concentration variability in marine low clouds. R. Wood, D. Leon, M. Lebsock, J. Snider, A. D. Clarke. Submitted to J. Geophys. Res., June 2012.
pdf Aerosol optical depth enhancement in partly cloudy conditions. D. Chand, R. Wood, S. Ghan, M. Wang, M. Ovchinnikov, P. J. Rasch, S. Miller, B. Schichtel, T. Moore. J. Geophys. Res.., 117, D17207, doi:10.1029/2012JD017894, 2012.
pdf
Stratocumulus clouds. R. Wood. Review paper, Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 2373–2423, 2012.
pdf The "Year" of Tropical Convection (May 2008 to April 2010): Climate Variability and Weather Highlights. D. E. Waliser, M. Moncrieff, D. Burrridge, Andreas H. Fink, D. Gochis, B. N. Goswami, B. Guan, P. Harr, J. Heming, H.-H. Hsu, C. Jakob, M. Janiga, R. Johnson, S. Jones, P. Knippertz, J. Marengo, H. Nguyen, M. Pope, Y. Serra, C. Thorncroft, M. Wheeler, R. Wood, S. E. Yuter. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011BAMS3095.1, August 2012.
pdf Does precipitation susceptibility vary with increasing cloud thickness in marine stratocumulus?
Terai, C. R., R. Wood, D. C. Leon, and P. Zuidema. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4567-4583, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4567-2012, 2012.
pdf Organic carbon and non-refractory aerosol over the remote Southeast Pacific: oceanic and combustion sources. L. M .Shank, A.D. Clarke ,S. Howell, S. Freitag, V. Brekhovskikh, V. Kapustin, C. McNaughton, T. Campos, and R. Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 557-576, doi:10.5194/acp-12-557-2012, 2012.
pdf Marine Cloud Brightening. J. Latham, K. Bower, T. Choularton, H. Coe, P. Connolly , G. Cooper ,T. Craft, J. Foster, A. Gadian, L. Galbraith, H. Iacovides, D. Johnston, B. Launder, B. Leslie, J. Meyer, A. Neukermans, B. Ormond, B. Parkes, P. J. Rasch, J. Rush, S. Salter, T. Stevenson, H. Wang, Q. Wang, and R. Wood. Phil Trans Roy. Soc. A, 2012, 370, 4217-4262, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0086.

2011

pdf Large-eddy simulation of mesoscale dynamics and entrainment around a pocket of open cells observed in VOCALS RF06. A. H. Berner, C. S. Bretherton, and R. Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10525-10540, 2011.
pdf
The distribution of cloud horizontal sizes . R. Wood, and P. R. Field, J. Clim., 24, 4800-4816, 2011 .
pdf
Temperature and water vapor variance scaling in global models: Comparisons to satellite and aircraft data. B. H. Kahn, J. Teixeira, E. J. Fetzer, A. Gettelman, S. M. Hristova-Veleva, X. Huang, A. K. Kochanski, M. Köhler, S. K. Krueger, R. Wood, and M. Zhao. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 2156-2168, 2011 .
pdf Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol. N. Sakaeda, R. Wood, and P. J. Rasch (2011). J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12205, doi:10.1029/2010JD015540.
pdf Southeast Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20S during VOCALS-REx. G. Allen, Coe, H., Clarke, A., Bretherton, C., Wood, R., Abel, S. J., Barrett, P., Brown, P., George, R., Freitag, S., McNaughton, C., Howell, S., Shank, L., Kapustin, V., Brekhovskikh, V., Kleinman, L., Lee, Y.-N., Springston, S., Toniazzo, T., Krejci, R., Fochesatto, J., Shaw, G., Krecl, P., Brooks, B., McMeeking, G., Bower, K. N., Williams, P. I., Crosier, J., Crawford, I., Connolly, P., Allan, J. D., Covert, D., Bandy, A. R., Russell, L. M., Trembath, J., Bart, M., McQuaid, J. B., Wang, J., and Chand, D., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5237-5262, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5237-2011, 2011.
pdf Large-scale and synoptic meteorology in the south-east Pacific during the observations campaign VOCALS-REx in austral Spring 2008. T. Toniazzo, S. J. Abel, R.Wood, C. R. Mechoso, L. C. Shaffrey. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4977-5009, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4977-2011, 2011
pdf An aircraft case study of the spatial transition from closed to open mesoscale cellular convection. R. Wood, C. S. Bretherton, D. Leon, A. D. Clarke, P. Zuidema, G. Allen, and
H. Coe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2341-2370, doi:10.5194/acp-11-2341-2011, 2011.
pdf The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): Goals, platforms, and field operations. R. Wood, C. S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, R. A. Weller, B. Huebert, F. Straneo, B. A. Albrecht, H. Coe, G. Allen, G. Vaughan, P. Daum, C. Fairall, D. Chand, L. Gallardo Klenner, R. Garreaud, C. Grados Quispe, D. S. Covert, T. S. Bates, R. Krejci, L. M. Russell, S. de Szoeke, A. Brewer, S. E. Yuter, S. R. Springston, A. Chaigneau, T. Toniazzo, P. Minnis, R. Palikonda, S. J. Abel, W. O. J. Brown, S. Williams, J. Fochesatto, J. Brioude, and K.N. Bower, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 627-654, 2011.

2010

pdf
Southeast Pacific stratocumulus clouds, precipitation and boundary layer structure sampled along 20S during VOCALS-REx. C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, R. C. George, D. Leon, G. Allen, and X. Zheng, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10639-10654, 2010.
pdf Source Attribution of Climatically Important Aerosol Properties measured at Paposo (Chile) during VOCALS. D. Chand, D.A. Hegg, R. Wood, G.E. Shaw, D. Wallace and D. S. Covert, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10789-10801, 2010.
pdf Subseasonal variability of low cloud radiative properties over the southeast Pacific Ocean. R. C. George and R. Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4047-4063, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4047-2010, 2010.
pdf The PreVOCA Experiment: Modeling the lower troposphere in the Southeast Pacific. Wyant, M. C., R. Wood, C.S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, J. Bacmeister, M. A. Balmaseda, B. Barrett, F. Codron, P. Earnshaw, J. Fast, A. Hall, C. Hannay, J. W. Kaiser, H. Kitagawa, S. A. Klein, M. Koehler, J. Manganello, H.-L. Pan, S. Wang, and Y. Wang. Atmos. Chem. Phys.,10, 4757-4774, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4757-2010, 2010.
pdf Modelling microphysical and meteorological controls on precipitation and cloud cellular structures in Southeast Pacific stratocumulus. H. Wang, G. Feingold, R. Wood, and J. Kazil, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6347-6362, doi:10.5194/acp-10-6347-2010, 2010.

2009

pdf Understanding the importance of microphysics and macrophysics for warm rain in marine low clouds: Part I. Satellite observations. T. Kubar, D. L. Hartmann, and R. Wood. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2953-2972, 2009.
pdf Understanding the importance of microphysics and macrophysics for warm rain in marine low clouds: Part II. Heuristic models of rain formation.
R. Wood, T. Kubar, D. L. Hartmann. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2973-2990, 2009.
pdf The diurnal cycle of surface divergence over the global oceans. R. Wood, M. Köhler, R. Bennartz, C. O'Dell, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 1484-1493, 2009
pdfA test of the simulation of tropical convective cloudiness by a cloud-resolving model. Lopez, M. A., D. L. Hartmann, P. N. Blossey, R. Wood, C. S. Bretherton, and T. L. Kubar, J. Climate., 22, 2834-2849, 2009.
pdf Satellite-derived direct radiative effect of aerosols dependent on cloud cover. D. Chand, R. Wood, T. Anderson, S. K. Satheesh, R. J. Charlson. Nature Geosciences, 2, 181-184.
pdf Observational strategies from the micro to meso scale. Brenguier, J.-L. and R. Wood. From the Strüngmann Forum Report, Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation. Edited by Jost Heintzenberg and Robert J. Charlson. 2009. MIT Press ISBN 978-0-262-01287-4
pdfCurrent Understanding and quantification of clouds in the changing climate system and strategies for reducing critical uncertainties. Johannes Quaas, Rapporteur, S. Bony, W. D. Collins, L. Donner, A. Illingworth, A. Jones, U. Lohmann, M. Satoh, S. E. Schwartz, W-K. Tao, and R. Wood. From the Strüngmann Forum Report, Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation. Edited by Jost Heintzenberg and Robert J. Charlson. 2009. MIT Press ISBN 978-0-262-01287-4

2008  

pdfMidlatitude cyclone compositing to constrain climate model behavior using satellite observations. Field, P. R., A. Gettelman, R. Neale, R. Wood, P. J. Rasch and H. Morrison. J. Clim., 21, 5887-5903.
pdf Studying the vertical variation of cloud droplet effective radius using ship and spaceborne remote sensing data. Chen, R., R. Wood, Z. Li, R. Ferraro, and F-L Chang. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A02, doi:10.1029/2007JD009596, 2008
pdfQuantifying above-cloud aerosol using spaceborne lidar for improved understanding of cloudy-sky direct climate forcing. Chand, D., T. L. Anderson, R. Wood, R. J. Charlson, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, M. Vaughan. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009433, 2008.
pdfOpen cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets. Wood, R., K. K. Comstock, C. S. Bretherton, C. Cornish, J. Tomlinson, D. R. Collins, and C. Fairall. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12207, doi:10.1029/2007JD009371, 2008.
pdfDynamic effects on tropical mean cloud radiative forcing and radiation budget. Yuan, J., D. L. Hartmann, and R. Wood. J. Clim., 21, 2337-2351, 2008.
pdfTimescale analysis of aerosol sensitivity during homogeneous freezing and implications for upper tropospheric water vapor budgets. Kay, J. E., and R. Wood. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L10809, doi:10.1029/2007GL032628, 2008

2007  

pdfRadiative and convective driving of tropical high clouds.
Kubar, T. L., D. L. Hartmann, and
R. Wood. J. Clim., 20, 5510-5526, 2007.
pdfThe three dimensional structure and kinematics of drizzling stratocumulus.
Comstock, K. K., S. E. Yuter,
R. Wood, and C. S. Bretherton. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 3767-3784, 2007.
pdfCancellation of aerosol indirect effects in marine stratocumulus through cloud thinning.
R.
Wood, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 2657-2669, 2007.
pdfThe VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study (VOCALS).
Wood R., C. R. Mechoso, C. S. Bretherton, B. Huebert, R. Weller. Clivar Variations, 5, No 1, 2007.

tPrecipitation and cloud structure in midlatitude cyclones.
Field, P. R. and R. Wood, J. Clim., 20, 233-254, 2007.
 
 
Cyclones dataset available online

BAMS Nowcast Papers of Note summary



2006

pdf
Relationships between optical depth, liquid water path, droplet concentration, and effective radius in adiabatic layer cloud.
R.
Wood., personal note.
pdfThe rate of loss of cloud droplets by coalescence in warm clouds.
R.
Wood, J.Geophys. Res., 111, D21205, doi:10.1029/2006JD007553, 2006.
On therelationship between stratiform low cloud cover and lower tropospheric stability.
Wood, R., and C. S. Bretherton, J. Clim.,19, 6425-6432, 2006.
A characterization of tropical transient activity in the CAM3 atmospheric hydrologic cycle.
Rasch, P. J., Stevens, M. J., Ricciardulli, L., Dai, A., Negri, A., Wood, R., Boville, B. A., Eaton, B., and Hack, J. J., J. Clim., 19, 2222-2242, 2006.
Spatial variability of liquid water path in marine low cloud: The importance of mesoscale cellular convection.
Wood, R., and Hartmann, D. L., J.Clim., 19,1748-1764, 2006.
Parameterization of the autoconversion process. Part II: Generalization of the Sundqvist-type parameterizations.
Liu, Y., Daum,P. H., McGraw, R., and Wood, R., J. Atmos. Sci., 63,1103-1109, 2006.

2005

Mixed-layer budget analysis of the diurnal cycle of entrainment in SE Pacific stratocumulus.
Caldwell
, P., Bretherton, C.S., and Wood, R. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3775-3791, 2005.
Integrated EPIC Stratocumulus dataset available online


Comments on: ``On the parameterization of the autoconversion process. Part I: Analytical formulation of the Kessler-type parameterizations''
Wood, R., and Blossey, P., J. Atmos. Sci, 62, 3003-3006, 2005.

Drizzle in stratiform boundary layer clouds. Part I: Vertical and horizontal structure
Wood, R. J. Atmos. Sci.,62, 3011-3033, 2005.
Drizzle in stratiform boundary layer clouds. Part II: Microphysical aspects
Wood, R. J. Atmos. Sci.,62, 3034-3050, 2005.

Pockets of Open Cells (POCs) and Drizzle in Marine Stratocumulus
Stevens, B., G. Vali, K. Comstock, R. Wood, M. VanZanten, P.H. Austin, C.S.Bretherton, D.H. Lenschow
Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 51-57, 2005

2004

Reflectivity and rain rate in and below drizzling stratocumulus
Comstock, K. K., Wood, R., Yuter, S. E., and Bretherton, C. S. Quart. J.Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130,2891-2919, 2004.
Boundary layer depth, entrainment and decoupling in the cloud-capped subtropical and tropical marine boundary layer
Wood, R., and Bretherton, C. S. J. Clim., 17,3576-3588, 2004.
The EPIC 2001 Stratocumulus Study
Bretherton, C. S., Uttal, T., Fairall, C. W., Yuter, S. E., Weller, R. A.,Baumgardner, D., Comstock, K., Wood, R. Bull. Am. Meteorol.Soc., 85, 967-977, 2004.


2003

 Ice particle interarrival times measured with a fast FSSP.
Field, P. R., Wood, R., Hirst, E., Greenaway, R., Kaye, P., Brown, P. R. A., and Smith, J. A. J.Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 20,249-261, 2003.
 

2002

 Diurnal cycle of liquid water path over the subtropical and tropical oceans
.
Wood, R., C. S. Bretherton, andD. L. Hartmann, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10.1029/2002GL015371, 2002
 
  Diurnal cycle dataset available for download

 
 Autoconversion rate bias in stratiform boundary layer cloud parameterizations.
Wood, R., Field, P. R. and W. R. Cotton, Atmos.Res., 65, 109-128, 2002.

 Comparison of probability density functions for total specific humidity and saturation deficit humidity, and consequences for cloud parameterization.
Price, J. D., and R. Wood, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 128,2059-2072, 2002
 How
important is the spectral ripening effect in stratiform boundary layer clouds?
Studies using simple trajectory analysis.

Wood, R., S. Irons, and P. R. Jonas, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2681-2693, 2002

2001

 Liquid water path variability in unbroken marine stratocumulus clouds.
Wood, R., and J. P. Taylor, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127,2635-2662, 2001
 Small-scale and mesoscale variabilityof scalars in cloudy boundary layers: One-dimensional probability density functions.
Larson, V. E., Wood, R., Field, P. R., Golaz, J-C., Vonder
Haar, T. H., and Cotton,W. R., J. Atmos. Sci.:58, 1978-1994, 2001.
 Systematic biases in the microphysics and thermodynamics of numerical models
that ignore subgrid-scale variability.

Larson, V. E., Wood, R., Field, P. R., Golaz, J-C., Vonder
Haar, T. H., and Cotton,W. R., J. Atmos. Sci.:58, 1117-1128, 2001.

Modification of the aerosol size distribution within exhaust plumes produced by diesel-powered ships. Osborne, S. R., D. W. Johnson, K. N. Bower, R. Wood, 2001: J. Geophys. Res., 106, 9827-9842, 2001

2000

 Parametrization of the effect of drizzle upon the droplet effective radius in stratocumulus clouds.
Wood, R., Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.: 126, 3309-3325, 2000.
Rejected comment on a paper by Davis et al. (1999) which suggests that enhancedsmall scale variability in LWC can actually be an artifact of the measurementtechnique. Wood, R. and Field, P. R.
 Some impact of pollutants on the development and optical properties of stratocumulus clouds.
Ghosh
, S.,Jonas, P. R., and Wood, R., Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.: 126,2851-2872, 2000.
 Relationships between Total Water,Condensed Water, and Cloud Fraction
in Stratiform Clouds Examined Using Aircraft Data.

Wood, R. and Field, P. R.,J. Atmos. Sci.: 57, 1888-1905,2000.

 Soluble ion chemistry of theatmospheric aerosol and SO2 concentrations over the eastern North Atlanticduring ACE2
M. O. Andreae, W. Elbert, R. Gabriel, D. W. Johnson,S. Osborne, R. Wood, Tellus: 52B, 1066-1087, 2000.